The Science Journal of the American Association for Respiratory Care

1997 OPEN FORUM Abstracts

EVALUATION OF FOURTEEN ADULT DISPOSABLE MANUAL RESUSCITATORS.

Thomas A. Barnes, EdD, RRT, Jo-Marie N. DiCarlo, Hector P. Guerreiro, Mahmoud K. Hejazi, Keith R. Hirst, Gerald R. Iwanski, Christine M. MacLellan, Cox Y. Tan-Ngo, Trish M. Tran, Matthew T. Vanasse. Department of Cardiopulmonary Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts.

We evaluated the performance and safety of fourteen disposable manual resuscitators (DMRs): 1st Response (Sims), Bag Easy (Respironics), Capno-Flo (Kirk Specialty Systems), CPR Bag (Mercury Medical), DMR (Puritan Bennett), Dryden (Gibeck), Lifesaver (Hudson RCI), LSP (Life Support Products), MPR (Hospitak), Pulmanex (Bird Life Design), Spur (Ambu), Vcare (Ventlab), Vital Blue (Vital Signs), Code Blue (Vital Signs). Method: We used standards and methods approved by American Society for Testing and Materials (F 920-93, ASTM Committee on Standards, Philadelphia, 1993) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO 8382: 1988E, New York, 1988). A Bio-Tek VT-2 Ventilator Tester was used as a lung model with C=0.02 L/cm H_{2}O [0.20L/kPa] and R=20 cm H_{2}O.s.L^{-1} (2 kPa.s.L^{-1}). Results: all of the DMRs met ASTM and ISO standards for V_{T} (600 mL), f (20/min), and I:E ( < 1:2). The ASTM and ISO standards specify an FDO_{2} of >= 0.85 with O_{2} reservoir and O_{2} flow of 15 L/min and V_{E} of 7.2 L/min (V_{T} 600 mL, f 12/min). VCare with bag O_{2} reservoir had a FDO_{2}, mean (SD), of 0.72 (0.02), which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the other ten DMRs with bag O_{2} reservoir. FDO_{2} for 1st response, MPR, and Vcare with aerosol tube O_{2} reservoirs < 45 inches long had a mean (SD) of 0.82 (0.02), 0.80 (0.01), 0.69 (0.00) respectively, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than 7 DMRs with aerosol tube O_{2} reservoirs with lengths >=45 inches. 1st Response, DMR, and VCare with tube O_{2} reservoirs in the collapsed storage position had a FDO_{2}, mean (SD), of 0.73 (0.00), 0.68 (0.01), and 0.69 (0.01). When tested with simulated vomitus all DMRs were able to be restored to proper function within 20 seconds. All DMRs passed tests for O_{2} flow of 30 L/min, forward and backward leakage, drop from 1 meter, and 10-second immersion-in-water. All DMRs except MPR passed the test for expiratory resistance (pressure < 5 cm H_{2}O). Capno-Flo, Dryden, MPR, Pulmanex, and Vital Blue failed the test for inspiratory resistance (pressure < -5 cm H_{2}O). The BagEasy. DMR, Lifesaver, and Spur were the only DMRs that met specifications for user manual. BagEasy, Code Blue, CPR Bag with tube reservoir, Lifesaver, and Vital Blue with bag reservoir were the only DMRs that prevented accidental disassembly. Conclusions: We conclude that BagEasy, DMR, Lifesaver, and Spur met ASTM and ISO standard specifications tested in this study. The other ten DMRs were out of compliance with one or more ASTM and ISO requirements.

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