The Science Journal of the American Association for Respiratory Care

2005 OPEN FORUM Abstracts


by Joe Dwan, MS, RRT, Kaiser Sunnyside Medical Center, Portland, OR

A bench evaluation of disposable, self-inflating adult, pediatric & neonatal resuscitation bags was performed focusing on delivered FiO2 and bag performance.

Bench testing of 7 brands and 19 bags was performed with a calibrated O2 flowmeter, calibrated oxygen analyzer, and respirometer. FiO2 was measured at variable O2 flows and respiratory rates with consistent tidal volumes. Reservoir type, bag compliance, features and comments were also recorded. Vomitus valve clearance and three meter drop tests were also performed.

Bag design, reservoir design, O2 flowrate, and delivered minute ventilation were determining factors in study outcomes. Different respiratory rates and various flowmeter flow rates were used to simulate actual conditions. At 10 lpm O2 flow, all adult bags failed ASTM FdO2 standards at minute volumes of 16 liters. Only one bag-type per manufacturer was tested.

Small-bore aerosol reservoirs consistently performed poorly for FdO2. Large bore reservoirs performed significantly better. Flowmeters should be set on flush when using resuscitation bags. Three of the seven brands adult bags were rated acceptable. All neonatal bags and most pediatric bags were acceptable. All bags passed the 3 meter drop test. Duck-billed valves cleared of simulated vomitus readily.
Adult Bags FdO2
Type of
VitalSigns 91,94,94 10 sm aerosol
  71,91,94 20 sm aerosol
Nellcor 91,98,100 10 sm aerosol
  81,97,100 20 sm aerosol
Mercury 89,99,100 10 bag
  74,96,99 20 bag
Portex 82,90,93 10 large bore
  73,82,87 20 large bore
Hudson 88,88,91 10 bag
  62,83,86 20 bag
Allegiance 70,74,78 10 sm aerosol
  68,74,76 20 sm aerosol
Ambu 64,68,73 10 sm aerosol
  62,65,71 20 sm aerosol

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